The NRDC is working to make the Global Climate Climate Action Summit a success by inspiring more ambitious commitments to the historic 2015 agreement and enhanced pollution reduction initiatives. Adaptation issues were at the forefront of the paris agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  The Paris Agreement was launched at the signing on April 22, 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.  After the agreement was ratified by several EU member states in October 2016, there were enough countries that had ratified the agreement to produce enough greenhouse gases in the world for the agreement to enter into force.  The agreement came into force on November 4, 2016.  The implementation of the agreement by all the Member States combined will be evaluated every five years, with the first evaluation in 2023. The result will be used as an input for new national contributions from Member States.  The inventory will not be national contributions/achievements, but a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what remains to be done.
One of the most important architectural concepts of Cancun`s 2oC target, which has been transferred to the long-term temperature target of Paris, is to “keep warming” below a certain level. The term “Hold below” is significantly stronger than a return to a certain degree of warming up to a certain time (up to 2100 (of a higher implied level). During the negotiations on this warming target, formulations such as the return to 2oC by 2100 were proposed and rejected. In reviewing a series of emission pathways that meet a long-term temperature target, a requirement to remain below a certain level of warming requires larger and faster emission reductions than a temperature target requiring, for example, a return to a certain degree of warming by the year 2100. This has a concrete impact on policies – and emissions trajectories – and, as a result, the Climate Action Tracker has made sure to use channels that are fully in line with the objectives. While the Paris Agreement ultimately aims to limit global temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius this century, many studies evaluating the voluntary commitments of some countries in Paris show that the cumulative effect of these emission reductions will not be significant enough to keep temperatures below that ceiling. Indeed, the targets set by the target countries should limit the future increase in temperature between 2.7 and 3.7 degrees Celsius. At the same time, recent assessments of countries` developments in the framework of their climate targets in Paris indicate that some countries are already not meeting their commitments. The IPCC notes that climate change is limited only by a “substantial and sustainable reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.” While the benefits of presenting a single global temperature threshold as a dangerous climate change can be discussed, the general scientific view is that an increase in global temperatures of more than 2 degrees Celsius would be an unacceptable risk – potentially leading to mass extinctions, more severe droughts and hurricanes, and an arid region.
While it is not clear that global warming will cause “sudden and irreversible changes” in Earth`s systems, the risk of exceeding the threshold only increases if temperatures rise.